A “big“ waist is often not only an aesthetic problem but also a risk factor for our health.
What to do to dispose of the extra kilos?
How to set up a correct diet?
Keep reading to know how to lose weight!
Starting a diet is simple, the problem is to complete it successfully. The desire to reach quickly the set goals, without having first built a healthy food culture, often frustrates the efforts of those who lose a few pounds.
Slimming well and healthy is difficult, especially for those people who for years have combined a poor diet with a sedentary or semi-temporary lifestyle. For all these subjects dealing with last-minute diets, creams and various supplements, the hopes of defeating the superfluous fat with the diet alone are extremely low. Leaving aside the use of cosmetic surgery, the only effective solution is to associate a balanced diet with a regular program of physical activity.
Only in this way will it be possible to speed up the body’s metabolism by turning the organism into a real fat-burning machine.
- Calculate your weight and calories needed
- Read carefully our Food Tips and the “tricks” to give an extra boost to your metabolism
- Consult our dietary examples without forgetting that before starting a new diet it is a good rule to consult a doctor, a dietician or a nutritionist
- If you are wondering what is the best sport to lose weight, you need to know that there is no better activity than the others, the important thing is to move. If you want to discover the calorie consumption of the various sports, you can once again refer to our automatic calculation modules.
- It is however important that the physical activity is regular (AT LEAST forty minutes a day for three to four times a week). In this way the density of the capillary bed will increase, the mitochondria will become more effective and the muscles will be more voluminous and “hungry” for calories. Combining all this with a balanced diet like those proposed, the result is guaranteed!
Questions and answers
What does diet mean?
Diet is a term derived from Greek and Latin that means “lifestyle”. In our culture the diet corresponds to an overall diet, whatever it is.
Who invented the Mediterranean diet?
The first to talk about the Mediterranean diet was Ancel Keys. The American physiologist studied the benefits of feeding the population of southern Italy, based on poor foods and unsaturated vegetable fats.
What to eat for healthy eating?
A healthy diet is based on VII basic food groups: meat, fish, eggs; milk and derivatives; cereals and derivatives, tubers; legumes; seasoning fats and oils; vegetables and fruit sources of vitamin A and C.
What does healthy and balanced diet mean?
The definition of balanced nutrition is complex. This must include all the food sources of essential nutrients, but also other nutrients and nutritional factors that are still necessary.
How to Lose Weight with the Perfect Diet
Before going into the question of “how to” lose weight effectively, efficiently and then correctly, let’s take a brief look at the causes of fat accumulation.
Causes of fat accumulation
Adipe is a tissue with specific functions of: energy reserve and endocrine function. Besides accumulating calories in the form of triglycerides, the fat constantly interacts with the body. When it is very full, it tells the brain to eat less (secreting a hormone called leptin), on the contrary it stimulates energy intake with the diet. There is a strong correlation between the metabolic and endocrine activity of adipose tissue, and the action of other important hormones such as insulin – which we will see later.
It is however useless to go around it; dysfunctions and pathologies aside, the only real cause of fat accumulation is excessive intake of food and caloric drinks depending on the total energy expenditure.
This correlation is called caloric balance and could be summarised: [IN energy – OUT energy]; the first is obviously the one taken with the diet and the second the one dispersed through the metabolic processes. For example, if you eat 10 and consume 5 you have a positive caloric balance (+5), and this determines an anabolic action (that is, construction) which specifically results in the accumulation of fat. Conversely (IN 5 and OUT 10), a negative caloric balance is obtained (-5), resulting in a catabolic action (ie demolition) or the depletion of excess fat.
We understand that the IN energy is made up of everything that comes in from the mouth. Foods contain many types of nutrients, 3 of which also have a caloric function. They are carbohydrates (3.75 kcal / 100 gm), lipids (9 kcal / 100 gm) and proteins (4 kcal / 100 gm) – ethyl alcohol, which cannot be used directly in cells, is converted into fatty acids providing 7 kcal / 100 gr.
The sum of these energetic macro-nutrients determines the caloric power of a food, therefore of the recipe and the dish, the meal and finally the diet. The fact that these nutrients also have other metabolic functions and destinations does not deny this mechanism: calories count.
Everything we do, starting with survival itself, has a cost. First, the basal metabolism (MB), or what it needs to keep the man-machine active in the absence of other influential factors. They are followed by the level of physical activity, which includes all the muscular activities (from scratching to sport), thermoregulation (being a man a warm-blooded animal) and the specific dynamic action of food (the cost of digesting and metabolising this what shall we eat).
The sum of all this determines the total caloric expenditure. Based on this calculation, it is possible to trace the total energy requirement – information necessary to lose weight.
How to act on the caloric balance To actively intervene on the caloric balance we therefore have 2 possibilities:
- Increase the requirement (ie the OUT energy), acting on the modifiable factors Decrease the intake (ie the energy IN), resizing the diet. The requirement is not a constant. It differs not only in an inter-individual manner but also intra-individually. Probably “Guy one” will have a higher or lower calorie consumption than the “Guy two” twin. Since our existence is characterised by mutability, energy expenditure will differ from one day to the next.
- The factors that can increase the requirement (for an increase in total caloric expenditure) are: growth, illness, exposure to difficult environmental conditions, pregnancy and lactation, greater extent of muscle mass, post-workout oxygen debt or EPOC, etc. Instead they penalise him, obviously: old age, poor muscle mass, comfort, etc.
The slimming diet can be managed in the way that best suits your needs. The basic principles are not many and could be summarised as follows: it must provide fewer calories than those that are spent (IPO-caloric diet), it must be balanced (also depending on subjectivity), it must be sustainable both psychologically (it must not upset the habits), both metabolically (it must not fall below 70% compared to the normal-caloric requirement).
But be careful, you should not use scapegoats or alibis, motivation, commitment, effort are still needed to lose weight. This is why is so important to know exactly how to lose weight properly.
It is logical that the ideal would be to turn to a good dietician who has all the knowledge – not necessarily highly technological tools – to test our physical condition. Not everyone, however, will spend money on a similar service – already starting badly with the project.
Therefore, it is possible to establish if you really need to lose weight or in the case of a simple aesthetic need.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
However, for those who prefer self-assessment, they can solve this formula:
(BMI) Body Mass Index = Weight (kg) / Height2 (mt)
If the value is in the range between 18.5 and 24.9 you are at a normal level. Values below 18.5 show a state of malnutrition and values from 25 upwards show a state of overweight. This reference index is not reliable for athletes and particularly fit subjects.
If the result is an indicator of overweight, it becomes necessary to start a slimming course.
As mentioned, the energy requirement corresponds to the total caloric expenditure composed of several elements.
Calculation of basal metabolism
The basal metabolic rate (MB) is the factor with the greatest impact on expenditure, therefore on the total caloric requirement.
The calculation of the basal metabolism indicates the minimum amount of energy (expressed in kcal) essential for the performance of vital functions (thermoregulation, respiration, blood circulation and metabolic activities). Among the many formulas, that of Harris-Benedict (1919) is perhaps the most immediate:
Men: = 66 + [13.7 x weight (kg)] + [5 x height (cm)] – (6.8 x age)
Women: = 65 + [9.6 x weight (kg)] + [1.9 x height (cm)] – (4.7 x age)
Thermogenesis Calculation Induced by Diet
Represents the amount of energy spent by the body to metabolise digested foods. It is quantified on average as 10% of the Basal Metabolism.
Working Activity Level and Working Metabolism
It is possible to estimate your activity level, and therefore the multiplicative factor, using the following values:
It links the activity level to a multiplicative factor that will be used to calculate the Working Metabolism (ML) = BMR x multiplicative factor.
Energy Consumption per Training
Represents the caloric increase because of sporting activity. To determine this value one can use one of the many calculators available online. It is essential that it takes into account the weight and age of the subject, the intensity and duration of the effort.
We have finally obtained the total caloric requirement or daily energy expenditure, from which we will remove about 30% to obtain a sustainable slimming calorie diet. It remains to understand what to put into it.
Therefore, to be able to choose the foods to be included in the various meals, we must acquire greater specificity about our needs.
- How many proteins, carbohydrates and fats must we include in the diet?
- How many meals and how abundant will they have to be?
How many macronutrients in the diet
25-30% of the total energy in fat, at least 0.8 (or 1.0) and not more than 1.6 gr / kg of physiological body weight of protein (in sedentary subjects) and the rest carbohydrates.
From total calories, therefore, we will proceed by counting first the fats and proteins and, by derivation from the remaining calories, finally the carbohydrates.
It is also possible to use Hatfield’s 1-2-3 strategy, e.g. total calories should be taken as 50% by carbohydrates, 33% by proteins and 17% by fat.
However, it is considered being not in line with the general recommendations.
A final system is to adjust to a requirement independent of calories, but estimated on the actual weight. In this regard, a diet based on approximately: 3 gr / kg of carbohydrates, 2 gr / kg of protein and 1 gr / kg of fat. The coefficients will drop based on the percentage of reduction.
How many calories per meal and how to distribute macronutrients
As said at the beginning, what matters is above all calories. Especially by training, it can be positive for recovery and muscle growth, nutrient optimisation and therefore weight loss, concentrating most of the energy between before and immediately after the workout.
In general we recommend 5 meals or at most 6, but not less than 4, per day.
Breakfast takes about 15% of calories, secondary snacks 5%, lunch and dinner 35 or 40% maximum.
It is also believed that for increased sensitivity to glucose and insulin, carbohydrate intake should be concentrated early in the day.
It is however a slightly outdated concept, better to respect the trend of physical activity.
- They are sources of complex carbohydrates: cereals, tubers and legumes
- Of proteins: meat, fish, eggs and dairy products – secondarily legumes
- Fats: condiments, oilseeds, cheeses, egg yolk, fatty cuts of meat and fish.
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